By Annemarie Kerkhoff
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Additional info for Acquisition of Morpho-Phonology: The Dutch voicing alternation
Stampe (1973) was the first to derive outputs by a set of innate and universal ‘natural’ processes, which are (serially) ordered or suppressed as development progresses. According to Stampe (1973), rules are mostly phonetically unmotivated and language-specific (hence they must be learned), whereas processes are universal and innate, reflecting articulatory limitations. Hence, Stampe was among the first to distinguish alternations that are phonetically motivated from those that are morphologically or lexically conditioned (see also Venneman (1972) and Hooper (1976)).
There are two rival theories that have been proposed to account for voicing alternations due to final devoicing. 27 Such a constraint is formulated in (12) below, which Kager (1999a) and Grijzenhout & Krämer (2000) adopt for Dutch. e. IDENT-IO(voice) as in (13)), demanding that segments maintain their voicing specification between the underlying and surface representation. (12) *VOICED-CODA: ‘coda obstruents are voiceless’. (13) IDENT-IO(VOICE): ‘the value of the feature [voice] of an input segment must be preserved in its output correspondent’ Tableau (14) shows how the Dutch ranking leads to final devoicing in the singular form; the output [bEd] violates the highest ranked constraint against voiced codas (indicated by *), even though it is faithful to the voicing specification of the input.
1998) found that Mandarin learners of English go through a stage in which they devoice codas. 23 Note however that there are reports of children who acquire contrasts first in non-prominent contexts: Amahl acquired the voice contrast first in final position but continued to merge it in initial position (Smith 1973, Dinnsen 1996). THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES 35 children later learn to suppress this natural process. Grunwell (1987:226) notes that some English children continue to use voiceless obstruents in word-final position for some time after the age of 3;0.
Acquisition of Morpho-Phonology: The Dutch voicing alternation by Annemarie Kerkhoff